JCI Technical Committee Report on the Use of Seawater in Concrete

In this 21st century, sustainability is an issue of extreme importance for humankind. Within this context, the depletion of resources is a problem. Particularly as regards drinking water, owing to increases in population and rapid urbanization throughout the world, a serious shortage is expected by 2050, when one-third of the world's population is predicted to lack sufficient access to drinking water. In the field of concrete, billions of tons of freshwater is consumed annually for mixing, curing and washing concrete. Seawater, which exists in abundance on the globe, is presently not permitted to be used for these purposes. Active use of seawater in the field would contribute to more effective use of freshwater resources.
Based on this social situation, JCI set the committee to research the possibility of seawater usage in concrete production, such as concrete mixing, concrete curing etc. The Committee has collected information on the use of seawater, such as for mixing and curing concrete, investigated problems and remedies via experiments and reference studies, and surveyed technologies for using seawater for the manufacture and curing of concrete through interviews and literature searches over a period of two years. Based on the results, issues surrounding the use of seawater and possible solutions are proposed.
Based on the information thus obtained, the Committee concludes as follows: 1) In the case of plain concrete, seawater can be used almost 100%, 2) In the case of RC, there is a good possibility to use seawater with appropriate mineral admixtures, 3) With stainless steel, even in RC, seawater can be used almost 100%, and 4) In some cases, the performance of concrete may be better with the use of seawater.
In this report, readers are expected to find the committee activities and committee attitude that it will contribute to the use of seawater as one of the ways to save freshwater resources in this country and, more particularly, in countries with freshwater shortages on earth.


Chapter 1 Objectives and activities of the Committee
1.1 Objectives of the Committee
1.2 Activities
Chapter 2 Case studies of concrete structures using seawater and unwashed sea sand (Investigation of structures – Investigation of standards)
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Case studies of structures built until now using seawater and unwashed sea sand
2.3 Investigation of past standards related to the use of seawater
2.4 Investigation of existing knowledge about use of seawater
2.5 Design method trend –from specification-based design to performance-based design– and use of seawater
2.6 Summary ·
Chapter 3 Evaluation of the material properties of concrete using sea water as mixing and/or curing water using results from the literature survey and experimental works carried out
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Effects of seawater on the hydration reaction mechanism of cement
3.3 Physical properties of concrete mixed with seawater (Ordinary Portland cement)
3.4 Properties of concrete mixed with seawater and containing a mixture(s)
3.5 Applications of seawater as the curing water
3.6 Summary
Chapter 4 Durability of concrete mixed with seawater
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Chloride attack
4.3 Seawater resistance
4.4 Carbonation
4.5 Freeze-thaw resistance
4.6 Alkali aggregate reaction
4.7 Salt erosion
4.8 Summary
Chapter 5 Higher performance of concrete mixed with seawater and appropriate reinforcement
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Higher performance of concrete mixed with seawater
5.3 Influence of corrosion inhibitor on concrete mixed with seawater and its effectiveness
5.4 Surveys on appropriate types of material for use as reinforcement
5.5 Summary
Chapter 6 Investigation of manufacturing and casting methods for concrete mixed with seawater
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Factual investigation of water utilization in concrete industry
6.3 Examples of casting concrete mixed with seawater
6.4 Manufacturing and casting of concrete mixed with seawater (precautions and countermeasures to be taken)
6.5 Manufacturing system of concrete mixed with sea water
6.6 Summary
Chapter 7 Overall summary and future outlook
7.1 Summary
7.2 Future development


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